Conditional Sum with Groupby

First groupby the key1 column:

In [11]: g = df.groupby('key1')


and then for each group take the subDataFrame where key2 equals ‘one’ and sum the data1 column:

In [12]: g.apply(lambda x: x[x['key2'] == 'one']['data1'].sum())
Out[12]:
key1
a       0.093391
b       1.468194
dtype: float64


To explain what’s going on let’s look at the ‘a’ group:

In [21]: a = g.get_group('a')

In [22]: a
Out[22]:
data1     data2 key1 key2
0  0.361601  0.375297    a  one
1  0.069889  0.809772    a  two
4 -0.268210  1.250340    a  one

In [23]: a[a['key2'] == 'one']
Out[23]:
data1     data2 key1 key2
0  0.361601  0.375297    a  one
4 -0.268210  1.250340    a  one

In [24]: a[a['key2'] == 'one']['data1']
Out[24]:
0    0.361601
4   -0.268210
Name: data1, dtype: float64

In [25]: a[a['key2'] == 'one']['data1'].sum()
Out[25]: 0.093391000000000002


It may be slightly easier/clearer to do this by restricting the dataframe to just those with key2 equals one first:

In [31]: df1 = df[df['key2'] == 'one']

In [32]: df1
Out[32]:
data1     data2 key1 key2
0  0.361601  0.375297    a  one
2  1.468194  0.272929    b  one
4 -0.268210  1.250340    a  one

In [33]: df1.groupby('key1')['data1'].sum()
Out[33]:
key1
a       0.093391
b       1.468194
Name: data1, dtype: float64